(… يَسْأَلُونَكَ) (They ask you …): The y may ask about a religious or a general matters, whereas when the word: ( يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ ) (They request from you ) is mentioned, it refers only to a religious ruling.
(… يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ ۖ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَات ) (They ask you, [O Muhammad], what has been made lawful for them. Say, “Lawful for you are [all] good foods …): Here they ask the Prophet (saws) about the lawful for them, the answer indicates that the lawful is very wide, everything that Allah (swt) has permitted is good, that is, everything that is not prohibited is good, and as for the evil, it is what Allah (swt) has prohibited.
(… ومَا عَلَّمْتُم مِّنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ…) (…and [game caught by] what you have trained of hunting animals which you train as Allah has taught you.…): Refers to trained hunting dogs, falcons and all types of birds and beasts that are trained to hunt, because when they catch the hunted animal, it keeps it until its owner arrives and does not catch it to eat it itself, so it is lawful to eat.
(… فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ …) (…So eat of what they catch for you, and mention the name of Allah upon it …): The name of Allah (swt) has to be mentioned either when releasing a hunting dog, falcon, or predator for hunting, or when it comes with the hunted and a person wants to eat from it, according to the scholars’ consensus.
(… وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ …) (… and fear Allah…): This is the most important point about the lawful and unlawful, that is to fear Allah (swt) and obey His commands, avoid the forbidden and follow His method.
( إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ … ) (Indeed, Allah is swift in account…): So, do not think that the reckoning is deferred, rather it is faster than we expect:
قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ عَدَدَ سِنِينَ (112) قَالُوا لَبِثْنَا يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ فَاسْأَلِ الْعَادِّينَ
([Allah] will say, “How long did you remain on earth in number of years?” (113) They will say, “We remained a day or part of a day; ask those who enumerate.”) (Al-Muminoon: 112-113)