(do not) indicates now and future. This Surah was revealed because the disbelievers of Quraysh invited the Messenger of Allah (saws) to worship their idols for a year and they would in turn worship his God for a year, so they wanted to divide the worship by time.
Worship is fundamental in all the doctrines. It is not a legislation that is subjected to change by time and place, or from nation to another. However, the command of worshipping only Allah (swt) with no partners, is a matter that is agreed by all from Adam (pbuh) until the last Messenger (saws) and it does not change as the circumstances and conditions change.