The scholars have said that it happened among the believers and the polytheists.
The Prophet (saws) and the believes together with him believed that there would be a Day of Judgment; a day on which the creation would be accounted for all that they had done in this world.
Our problem of today, tomorrow and of the past as well, lies with those who argue about the fine details of Aqeedah (Creed) and Iman (Faith). This is because, when you talk about Iman (Faith) or debate anyone about it, you must first move to the peak of Aqeedah (Creed) which is the belief in Allah (swt), only then you may come to the details of it.
The issues regarding the unseen cannot be verified through experimentalism such as for example, the Paradise and the Hell-fire.
Juz’ Amma, as a whole, talks about the Paradise, the Hell fire, the Reckoning, the reward and the punishment. Therefore, you might find someone trying to argue with you regarding issues such as ‘the fair maidens’; ‘the Paradise and its rivers made up of wine’; ‘the non-existence of excretion in Paradise’; ‘Eternity in Paradise’; ‘the sleeping and waking up thereafter’ and so on.
These are actually specific issues in Aqeedah (Creed), when they are raised, we shall first discuss the origin: Do you believe in Allah (swt) or not? This is how to start a debit; the discussion should not be about the creed details since as they are built upon the belief in the existence of a God. And since there is a God Who we believe in His existence, consequently, we believe in everything He informs us of.
Hence, belief in Allah (swt) comes before talking about the Paradise and the Hell fire and everything relate to them.
We have to start our debate from a common point of agreement in order to be able to discuss the things that we disagree upon, if we disagree upon everything from the very start, then there is no room for debate.
The Iman (faith) in Allah (swt) is proven through the intellect, although it is of the unseen. This is because, it is a fact that it is not possible for something to exist without a Creator. As a Bedouin said that droppings point to the existence of a camel and tracks point to the existence of a person. What more the sky containing great stars and the Earth with its roads of passage! Do they not point to The Most High, The All-Aware?!
To illustrate this point, let’s say we are sitting in a mosque when someone has dropped his bag. Thus, if a person comes and claims that the bag is his, while everyone else does not say anything, then, it is logically proven through evidence that the bag is really his.
Similarly, we see the sun shining and the moon illuminating. There is air, water, clouds, oceans, rivers, life and death. Is it then correct for us to say that all of these exist without a Creator at all?! Actually, not.
﴾ إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ﴿
)Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding.) (Ali-Imran: 190)
Signs for the people of intellect.
It has been established through proofs and evidences that these galaxies and skies; and the Earth and everything on it, must necessarily have a Creator.
Due to this, Allah (swt) has given the Messengers the task of conveying to human beings the information regarding the Creator and the Originator of the whole existence:
﴾ إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا ﴿
(Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me) (Taa Haa: 14)
Thus, all the Messengers have called people to worship Allah (swt) the Only creator.
So, when the Prophet (saws) have come; his truthfulness has been proven; and we have believed in the existence of Allah (swt) scientifically and intellectually through the signs which point to His Existence; only then does Allah (swt) tell us that there is Paradise and Hellfire, thereafter, we accept these details.
Every one of the Surahs which we will go through in Juz Amma, and specifically Surah An-Naba’, talks about the Hereafter.