الآية رقم (7-8) - فَإِذَا فَرَغْتَ فَانصَبْ - وَإِلَى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبْ
(7-8) - (So when you have finished [your duties], then stand up [for worship].
(7) And to your Lord direct [your] longing. (8))
Whenever you have finished your duties, devote yourself to Allah’s worship by prayers, Thikr (remembering of Allah) and supplication.
Prayer was not obligatory till the trip of Isra’ and Mi’raj at the end of the Makki period before migration to Madinah. Allah (swt) has committed the Messenger (saws) the mission of publishing the message to his clan, people of Makkah and to the whole world.
To reveal this message the Prophet (saws) has endured a lot of hardships that occupied him from the worship he used to practice in the cave of Hira’ – where Jibril came down to him with the revelation – so he became busy with people, in trouble and hardship, so, he was busy with people and in hardship.
The verse means: When you have finished from all these hardships, then stand and devote yourself to Allah’s worship. The Prophet (saws) was praying at night and his feet had swelled up.
Aa’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) asked him; “Do you pray while Allah has forgiven your past and future mistakes?” So, he said:
“Oh Aa’isha, should I not be a thankful slave?”
It does not mean to exhaust himself, rather, to direct his desires and intentions to Allah (swt) to approach Him as a lover, and to persist in supplication.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Tafsir, Hadith No. 4557.
الآية رقم (5-6) - فَإِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًا - إِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًا
(5-6) - (For indeed, with the hardship [will be] ease. (5) Indeed, with the hardship [will be] ease. (6))
Our religion is a religion of ease, the Prophet (saws) said:”
“Facilitate things to people (concerning religious matters), and do not make it hard for them and give them good tidings and do not make them run away (from Islam)”. 
The hardship mentioned in the two verses is one, because it is defined with (the), it is singular in both, whereas, ease comes undefined, so there are two.
So, one hardship cannot overcome two reliefs; no matter how circumstances get hard and how life is dark, a day light will come to disperse the darkness.
Abdullah ibn Mass’ud (May Allah be pleased with him) said: “If the hardship entered a hole, the relief will follow it until it gets it out and overcomes it, so the poor will not wait but relief and the afflicted will not wait other than good health”
(with) refers to the fast coming of ease, as if it is associated with the hardship.
 Sahih Al-Bukahri, Book of knowledge, hadith No. 69
الآية رقم (4) - وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ
(4) - (And raised high for you your repute. (4))
This verse was revealed in Mekkah, so what is the repute that Allah (swt) has raised for him, whereas he (saws) was not able to pray at the Ka’bah and he was sieged and pursued!! The answer is: This is one of the miracles of the Holy Qur’an.
The Adhan (call for prayer) was not made obligatory in Makkah, rather, in Madinah; Allah (swt) associated His great name with the name of His Messenger, in Adhan we say: (I witness that there is no God but Allah, and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah), in every Iqamah (call for the prayer) and in the Tashahud (an act in the prayer), in Friday day , on the pulpits, on Eid days, on Arafat Day, during throwing the Jimar (stones) and at Safa and Marwa in Haj and in every place, house and habitant we pray upon the Prophet (saws) and his name is raised at all times and places. Verify, whoever Allah (swt) raises his name, no human can stop it.
الآية رقم (3) - الَّذِي أَنقَضَ ظَهْرَكَ
(3) - (Which had weighed upon your back (3))
It also refers to the intensity of the revelation when it was descending to the Prophet (saws). Allah (swt) mentions the back because it carries most of the loads.
الآية رقم (2) - وَوَضَعْنَا عَنكَ وِزْرَكَ
(2) - (And We removed from you your burden (2))
It is the heavy burden that the Prophet (saws) carried; he was worried about the da’wa (calling people to Islam), of what the polytheists did to him; the sufferings, the siege, killing of his companions, the migration and others.
الآية رقم (1) - أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ
(1) - (Did We not expand for you, [O Muhammad], your chest? (1))
This is a question directed to the person who is asked.
Expanding the chest means opening it and extracting what prevents it from comprehending including concerns, worries and pains then filling it with wisdom and knowledge. The Prophet (saws) said:
“When the light enters the heart, it will expand,”
They said: O’ Messenger of Allah, is there a known sign for this? He said:
“Yes, rushing from the house of vanity, rushing to the house of eternity, and preparing for death before its descent.”