الآية رقم (15) - وَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا

(15) - (And He does not fear the consequence thereof. (15))

The scholars mentioned two meanings about this verse:

The first: The subject of the verb (fear) is Allah (swt), which means that He (swt) is not questioned about His judgement, no rebound for His decision and He (swt) does not fear anyone of His creation when He brings down punishment upon His deniers. This is a strong threat towards the people of Makkah.

The second meaning of this verse: The subject of the verb (fear) is the person who hamstrung the she-camel of Allah (swt) and doesn’t fear any consequences for his evil action. He did it with the agreement of his people and with stubbornness, determination and denying the prophet Saleh (pbuh), consequently, they all deserved the punishment.

الآية رقم (14) - فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَعَقَرُوهَا فَدَمْدَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُم بِذَنبِهِمْ فَسَوَّاهَا

(14) - (But they denied him and hamstrung her. So their Lord brought down upon them destruction for their sin and made it equal [upon all of them]. (14))

فَعَقَرُوهَا (They hamstrung her): Does the plural form indicates that the whole tribe contributed in hamstringing her or the nine persons? or just one of them hamstrung her; who is Qadar Ibn Salef, as narrated in some texts, and everyone agreed on that?

The source of this Arabic word refers to hitting a camel’s leg to let it fall then to be slaughtered. Only an expert can do that, that is why Allah (swt) said:

 {فَنَادَوْا صَاحِبَهُمْ فَتَعَاطَىٰ فَعَقَرَ }

(But they called their companion, and he dared and hamstrung [her].) (Al-Qamar: 29)

فَدَمْدَمَ (brought down destruction): Allah (swt) shook the earth under them. Hence, Allah (swt) enforced destruction upon them so they were destroyed and became extinct.

بِذَنبِهِمْ (for their sin): Allah (swt) punished them because of their sin and what they have committed; they rejected their Prophet Saleh (pbuh). Allah (swt) is never unjust with His servants:

 {فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ }

(“Then you had not any favor over us, so taste the punishment for what you used to earn.”) (Al-A’raaf: 39)

فَسَوَّاهَا (made it equal): He made the punishment descend upon them all equally; to all young and old.

Allah (swt) told us about the punishment of people of Thamud in other Surahs as well:

 {فَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَأُهْلِكُوا بِالطَّاغِيَةِ}

(So as for Thamud, they were destroyed by the overpowering [blast].) (Al-Haqqa: 5)

{ وَأَخَذَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا الصَّيْحَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دِيَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ % كَأَن لَّمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا ۗ أَلَا إِنَّ ثَمُودَ كَفَرُوا رَبَّهُمْ ۗ أَلَا بُعْدًا لِّثَمُودَ }

(And the shriek seized those who had wronged, and they became within their homes [corpses] fallen prone % As if they had never prospered therein. Unquestionably, Thamud denied their Lord; then, away with Thamud.) (Hud: 68)

Once Allah (swt) names their punishment as overpowering and once a shriek or a shake.

 {فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ }

(So the earthquake seized them, and they became within their home [corpses] fallen prone.) (Al-A’raaf: 78)

 {فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَقُلْ أَنذَرْتُكُمْ صَاعِقَةً مِّثْلَ صَاعِقَةِ عَادٍ وَثَمُودَ }

(But if they turn away, then say, “I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt [that struck] ‘Aad and Thamud.) (Fussilat: 13)

So it is all kinds of punishments; a thunderbolt, shriek, earthquake and overpowering that is why Allah (swt) in this verse described it as brought down destruction that killed every person in the state he was in, it is an overpowering punishment which stopped their hearts immediately and disabled their limbs, that is why Allah (swt) says:

  {فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ }

(and they became within their home [corpses] fallen prone.) (Al-A’raaf: 78)

الآية رقم (13) - فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ نَاقَةَ اللَّهِ وَسُقْيَاهَا

(13) - (And the messenger of Allah [Salih] said to them, "[Do not harm] the she-camel of Allah or [prevent her from] her drink." (13))

The Prophet Salih (pbuh) told them that this is she-camel of from Allah (swt), so do not harm her, she is a sign you asked for. The she-camel is added to the name of Allah (swt) meaning that she had a position and value, according to Who she has been added and related to, like when we say: The Book of Allah (swt), the House of Allah (swt), so that they should have appreciated her.

We notice that the Arabic word (she-camel) ends with the short A-vowel, this implies: Beware not to harm Allah’s (swt) she-camel, do not prevent her from drinking, this is Allah’s (swt) command so do not go beyond it, otherwise, this is the wickedness itself. Allah (swt) in another verse says:

 {وَيَا قَوْمِ هَٰذِهِ نَاقَةُ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ آيَةً فَذَرُوهَا تَأْكُلْ فِي أَرْضِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوءٍ فَيَأْخُذَكُمْ عَذَابٌ قَرِيبٌ}

(And O my people, this is the she-camel of Allah – [she is] to you a sign. So let her feed upon Allah ‘s earth and do not touch her with harm, or you will be taken by an impending punishment.”) (Hud: 64)

الآية رقم (12) - إِذِ انبَعَثَ أَشْقَاهَا

(12) - (When the most wretched of them was sent forth. (12))

أَشْقَاهَا (The most wretched of them): The most wretched persons from Thamud’s people and the most disbelieving and rejecting of the Prophet Saleh (pbuh) and the most bold to kill the camel. They were nine of the most wretched people. Allah (swt) says:

 {وَكَانَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ تِسْعَةُ رَهْطٍ يُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا يُصْلِحُونَ }

(And there were in the city nine family heads causing corruption in the land and not amending [its affairs].) (Al-Naml: 48)

They were people of absolute corruption, who did not know integrity and insisted on corruption and defended it, if they saw something right, they corrupted it and disagreed with its people. This is the nature of corrupt people, because amendment damages their benefits.

الآية رقم (11) - كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِطَغْوَاهَا

(11) - (Thamud denied [their prophet] by reason of their transgression, (11))

Thamud nation is an example of the one who deceives himself, desires the fatal and does not follow Allah’s commands nor His prophet’s (saws).

Allah (swt) guided them to the way of righteousness, benevolent, purity and the goodness, but they preferred disbelieving, as Allah (swt) said:

 {وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ}

(And as for Thamud, We guided them, but they preferred blindness over guidance, so the thunderbolt of humiliating punishment seized them for what they used to earn.) (Fussilat: 17)

The calling of the Prophet Saleh (pbuh) to his people was as all the other callings of the Prophets (pbut). Allah (swt) said:

 {وَإِلَىٰ ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا ۗ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ}

(And to the Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih. He said, “O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him.) (Al-A’raaf: 73)

The miracle which they asked for to testify to his true calling from Allah (swt) was a camel with a child in her belly. Allah (swt), then, brought it to them out of a certain rock which they specified. Saleh (pbuh) said to them, as stated in the Holy Quran:

 {قَدْ جَاءَتْكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ هَٰذِهِ نَاقَةُ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ آيَةً ۖ فَذَرُوهَا تَأْكُلْ فِي أَرْضِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوءٍ فَيَأْخُذَكُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ }

(There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. This is the she-camel of Allah [sent] to you as a sign. So leave her to eat within Allah ‘s land and do not touch her with harm, lest there seize you a painful punishment.) (Al-A’raaf: 73)

Allah (swt) has made it beneficial to Thamoud’s people; it produced milk that has never been known before, in return it drinks one day from the well and the people drink the next day. Allah (swt) said:

 {قَالَ هَٰذِهِ نَاقَةٌ لَّهَا شِرْبٌ وَلَكُمْ شِرْبُ يَوْمٍ مَّعْلُومٍ }

(He said, “This is a she-camel. For her is a [time of] drink, and for you is a [time of] drink, [each] on a known day.) (Ash-Shu’araa: 155)

By this way they got water and milk, but they disbelieved in Allah (swt) and His blessings and in Saleh (pbuh), that is why Allah (swt) says:

 {كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِطَغْوَاهَا}

(Thamud denied [their prophet] by reason of their transgression, (11))

Thamud denied, so did peoples of Aad, Lott, Shaua’ib, Noah and Ibrahim (pbut), even the people of the Prophet Muhammad (saws). Allah (swt) says:

 {إِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وَثَمُودُ % وَقَوْمُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ % وَأَصْحَابُ مَدْيَنَ ۖ وَكُذِّبَ مُوسَىٰ فَأَمْلَيْتُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ }

(And if they deny you, [O Muhammad] – so, before them, did the people of Noah and ‘Aad and Thamud deny [their prophets], % And the people of Abraham and the people of Lot % And the inhabitants of Madyan. And Moses was denied, so I prolonged enjoyment for the disbelievers; then I seized them, and how [terrible] was My reproach.) (Al-Hajj: 42-44)

Thamud transgressed and exceeded all the limits, as they did not only deny the Prophet, but they killed the camel that used to give people milk, hence, their transgression was the ultimate sin, that is what some scholars said, among them is Mujahed: Their transgression refers to their sin.

It is also said that (their transgression) means (their punishment) which Saleh (pbuh) has promised them, so this punishment was overpowered them, as Allah (swt) said:

{ فَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَأُهْلِكُوا بِالطَّاغِيَةِ }

(So as for Thamud, they were destroyed by the overpowering [blast].) (Al-Haaqqa: 5)

الآية رقم (10) - وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

(10) - (And he has failed who instills it [with corruption]. (10))

دَسَّاهَا (instills): Instilling is to hide something in something else. Allah (swt) says:

  {أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ }

(or bury it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide.) (An-Nahl: 59)

(In this verse the same Arabic word but in present tense is used to mean: to hide him in the ground).

Hence, he instills his soul in sins, wrongdoings and in the pitfall astray. He humiliates his soul, seduce it and makes it away from obedience, purity and goodness. Consequently, he finds but the loss and failure.

الآية رقم (9) - قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا

(9) - (He has succeeded who purifies it, (9))

When Allah (swt) talks about the faith and its fruits, the word of (succeed) comes as a result of that faith. This Arabic word is taken from the material matter; any earth-sourced material is extracted by ‘الفَلاح (ploughing) which is the farmer work in land, Allah (swt) had willed to call the results of good faith by this name.

زَكَّاهَا (purifies it): Purifies it from desecration, sins and wrongdoings. The source of the Arabic word is (the growing), that is, cultivating the faculty of goodness in yourself, only then you will be successful.

الآية رقم (8) - فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا

(8) - (And inspired it [with discernment of] its wickedness and its righteousness, (8))

Allah (swt) gave you different perception tools; the hearing, the sight and the heart, showed you the way of right and wrong, gave you a brain to differentiate between the two paths and explained to you the consequences of each way, so that, you either follow the way of righteousness or the way of wrongdoings.

Righteousness is to fear Allah (swt) and avoid what leads to His punishment.

الآية رقم (7) - وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا

(7) - (And [by] the soul and He who proportioned it. (7))

Allah (swt) proportioned the creation of heaven and earth and the creation of mankind and his shape to the best shape. He (swt), as well, created human’s soul and made it capable of doing good or bad, the word (soul) also could mean the human himself, then, the meaning would be is that He (swt) has created hands, feet, eyes and nose …… for humans.

الآية رقم (6) - وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا طَحَاهَا

(6) - (And [by] the earth and He who spread it. (6))

The earth is stretched from all sides. Allah (swt) is swears by the earth that He (swt) spread and extended, so as when Allah (swt) says:

  {وَالْأَرْضَ مَدَدْنَاهَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ }

(And the earth – We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind,) (Qaaf: 7)

That does not mean that the earth is flat and not round, on the contrary, this verse proves its sphericity because the earth has no end, has no edge, for if it has been of a square, rectangle or a triangle shape, then we would have found an edge and would have fallen of it, or we would have reached its edge, but, if we walk in a straight line we will return back to the same point we started from, this proves its sphericity.

الآية رقم (5) - وَالسَّمَاء وَمَا بَنَاهَا

(5) - (And [by] the sky and He who constructed it. (5))

Construction implies strength and cohesion, as for the sky, it is a firm and stable ceiling. Allah (swt) says in other verses:

 {وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ}

(And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander.) (Adh-Dhaaryat: 47)

It is a n elevated compact building, AllAh (swt) says:

{ وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ}

(And the heaven He raised and imposed the balance.) (Ar-Rahman: 7)

Allah (swt) raised it above people’s heads so it would not fall down. Heaven and earth are our means of living; the earth carries us and we live on it, the sky is above us and it is well-constructed, compact and welded together. Allah (swt) says:

 { وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ}

(By the heaven containing pathways,) (Adh-Dharyat: 7)

الآية رقم (4) - وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَاهَا

(4) - (And [by] the night when it covers it. (4))

When night comes, it covers the earth with its darkness, Allah (swt) says:

 {يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا }

(He covers the night with the day, [another night] chasing it rapidly;) (Al-A’raaf: 54)

Even though, sometimes, it seems that there is opposition between day and night, in fact, there is not any, rather, there are cooperation and integration between them in the universe, since, movement of day is generated from the night, and rest of the night is generated from the day.

الآية رقم (3) - وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّاهَا

(3) - (And [by] the day when it displays it. (3))

جَلَّاهَا (displays it): To show and reveal it.

This happens when the day lights in its duly time. The subject (it) in this verse is the day that clears the darkness of the night, so that, it shows and reveals the things which are on the earth, the pronoun (it) here goes back to the darkness of the night. T

The subject, on the other hand, could be Allah (swt), meaning, Allah (swt) is the One who displays it.

الآية رقم (2) - وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا

(2) - (And [by] the moon when it follows it. (2))

The moon is another one of Allah’s (swt) miracles. Not only the sun lights and illuminates our day, rather the moon lights our night too. The sun and the moon are created to serve mankind, they are two of Allah’s signs that none of His creations can claim them to himself or to any other.

The moon itself is not intended here, but its light that people see after the light of the sun disappears because the moon does exist even when the sun exists.

And the light of the moon is derived from the sun’s light; it is acquired from the sun’s rays when they reflect on it. Allah (swt) says:

 {هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ }

(It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light) (Yunus: 5)

الآية رقم (1) - وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا

(1) - (By the sun and its brightness. (1))

Allah (swt) swears by the sun and its light that overflows the earth and overrides the darkness of night. Without any doubt, it is one of Allah’s (swt) miracles in this universe. Allah (swt) mentions it in the Holy Qur’an more than thirty-two times and made it a sign of His (swt) great creation. It is a shining light giving warmth, light and heat. it is, as well, the source of earth’s life and everything on it.

Allah (swt) does not just swear by the sun but by its brightness, as well; the time when the sun rises in the sky before it becomes vertical with earth, then it moves towards sunset and disappears. So, the brightness (daylight) is a universal visible phenomenon that Allah (swt) made it the best time for movement, labour and toil, even that, Musa (pbuh) defined this time for confronting Egypt’s Pharoah, so he said:

 {قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ الزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ النَّاسُ ضُحًى }

([Moses] said, “Your appointment is on the day of the festival when the people assemble at mid-morning.”) (Taa-Haa: 59)