الآية رقم (5) - سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ

(5) - (Peace it is until the emergence of dawn.) (5))

 The word (Peace) here is a comprehensive general word. Peace in its general meaning is security, stability and calmness. This peace, first of all, is to be between the person and his Lord (swt), between him and his various faculties, and it is with his community in which he lives. The angels, as well, when they descend in The Night of Al-Qadr they descend to greet the believers. This great honor of the message of the Prophet (saws) through the revelation of the Holy Qur’an on this night, which Allah (swt) granted to all creatures, and it is better than a thousand of months, so it shortens eighty-three years.

الآية رقم (4) - تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ

(4) - (The angels and the Spirit descend therein by permission of their Lord for every matter.) (4))

The angels descend to the earth or to the lowest sky.

وَالرُّوحُ (and the Spirit): is Jibril (pbuh). Allah (swt) says:

  ﴾نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ ﴿

(The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down.)  (Ash-Su’araa: 193)

Does the conjunction article (and) indicates that the two are different? The scholars said: No, it is a kind of conjunction between the public and the private. Such as when Allah (swt) says:

 ﴾ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَنْ دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ﴿

(My Lord, forgive me and my parents and whoever enters my house a believer and the believing men and believing women.) (Nouh: 28)

Every night of Al-Qadr in every year the angels, among them is Jibril (pbuh), descend to the people of the earth, to the mosques, to the readers of the Holy Qur’an.

مِّن كُلِّ أَمْر (for every matter): Is the descending relates to the Holy Qur’an or to every matter?

The scholars said the verse includes both, because in this night of the Qur’an descends and matters do fatted too. Allah (swt) says:

 ﴾فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ ﴿

(On that night is made distinct every precise matter) (Ad-Dukhaan: 4)

The angels descend for the Holy Qur’an and other matters; the  fates, the destinies of life, death dates, calamities, goodness, evil, births, and other things relate to human conditions by permission of Allah (swt).

الآية رقم (3) - لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ

(3) - (The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months.) (3))

The daily timing is according to the movement of the sun, and the monthly timing is according to the movement of the moon. Therefore, every twelve lunar cycles represent a year. As Allah (swt) told us that:

 ﴾ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ﴿

(The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an,) (Al-Baqara: 185)

So, He (swt) determined the position of this night in the month of Ramadan. Since thousand months contain eighty-three months of Ramadan, thus, the meaning is: The night of Al-Qadr is better than thousand months which do not have the night of Al-Qadr, this is a clear matter.

الآية رقم (2) - وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ

(2) - (And what can make you know what is the Night of Decree?) (2))

The language cannot express its value and worth.

The addressee here is the Prophet (saws), who is the most knowledgeable of this language. Meaning, this night is beyond human understanding. As if Allah (swt) saying to his Messenger: Unless we give you its meaning, you will not get it. Therefore, the word “Al-Qadr” includes a meaning above the verbal meaning; which is not reflected in the word itself, the evidence of this is Allah’s saying: (And what can make you know what is the Night of Decree?)

The general meaning in Arabic of “Laylat al-Qadr” is the night of greatness, honor, and high status.

الآية رقم (1) - إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ

(1) - (Indeed, We sent the Qur'an down during the Night of Decree.) (1))

Allah (swt) begins this Surah by saying, (Indeed, We sent). He (swt) did not say (I sent), so He (swt) give an expression using plural pronoun (We), which indicates the glorification. When we review this pronoun in the Holy Qur’an, we find it in statements that require the attributes of Majesty and Beauty. For, when Allah (swt) creates, the attributes of Knowledge, Ability, Wisdom and others, together with the Beauty and Majesty attributes are manifested in the creation.

Such as, Allah (swt) says:

{ إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ }

) Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian (. (Al-Hijr:9)

Yet, when Allah (swt) talks about himself and wants His servants to direct to him, He (swt) does not say (We are Allah), rather, He (swt) says:

{ إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي }

) Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. ( (Taha: 14)

We note here that regarding the commands of worship the pronoun of nearness is used, whereas, when Allah (swt) presents His blessings and favours on us, He (swt) uses the plural pronoun.

However, contemplating the Arabic verb of (sent) in the Holy Qur’an we find that it is mentioned in many different derivative forms such as:

{ نـزلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الأمِينُ }

) The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down. ((Ash-Su’araa: 193)

{بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ  ذَٰلِكَ }

) That is [deserved by them] because Allah has sent down the Book in truth. ((Al-Baqara: 176)

{هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ  }

) t is He who has sent down to you, [O Muhammad], the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise – they are the foundation of the Book – and others unspecific. ((Ali-Imran: 7)

{ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ }

Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah ” and then remained on a right course – the angels will descend upon them, [saying], “Do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Paradise, which you were promised.) (Fussilat: 30)

Among these various forms of the verb (sent), we notice that the Intransitive form نَزَلَ, sometimes, refers to the Holy Qur’an where He (swt) does not mention the doer, such as:

{ وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ }

(And with the truth We have sent the Qur’an down, and with the truth it has descended.) (Al-Israa: 105)

And other times it refers to the angel Jibril (pbuh), such as:

{ نـزلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الأمِينُ }

(The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down.) (Ash-Su’araa: 193)

That means, the Holy Qur’an was descended by a means or without a means; from the Preserved Tablet to the Earthly Sky.

But, definitely, the Holy Qur’an came down to the Prophet (saws) through Jibril (pbuh):

 ﴾نَـزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ ﴿

(He has sent down upon you, [O Muhammad], the Book. (Ali-Imran: 3)

Allah (swt) assigned the deed to Him (swt):

  ﴾وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَاهُ تَنزِيلًا﴿

(And [it is] a Qur’an which We have separated [by intervals] that you might recite it to the people over a prolonged period. And We have sent it down progressively.) (Al-Israa: 106)

(progressively) here reflects that the Holy Qur’an descended in graduality according to the incidents, and was not revealed all at once, contrary to other scriptures, because of this, it was said as mentioned in the Holy Qur’an:

 ﴾وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ ۖ وَرَتَّلْنَاهُ تَرْتِيلً ﴿

(And those who disbelieve say, “Why was the Qur’an not revealed to him all at once?” Thus [it is] that We may strengthen thereby your heart. And We have spaced it distinctly.) (Al-Furqaan: 32)

To conclude, the Arabic verb form نَـزَّلَ (Nazzala) (has sent down) indicates the repetition of the act, on the other hand, the form أَنزَلَ (Anzala) (has sent down) refers directly to Allah (swt), without mentioning Jibril (pbuh), however, this is the original of this verb; the transitive form, which indicates the first descending; that is moving the Holy Qur’an from the unseen to the witnessed world, as such, Allah (swt) says:

 ﴾ وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ قَالُوا حَسْبُنَا مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۚ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿

(And when it is said to them, “Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger,” they say, “Sufficient for us is that upon which we found our fathers.” Even though their fathers knew nothing, nor were they guided?) (Al-Maaida: 104)

The Messenger (saws) is the one who revealed the descending.

That is why those who reached the upmost enjoyment in reading the Holy Qur’an do not say “We are reading the Qur’an,” but, rather, they say “We hear the Qur’an.” Meaning that Allah (swt) is the one who is speaking and we listen.

Therefore, it was reported about our master Ja’far Al-Sadiq (May Allah be pleased with him) – who was the most knowledgeable person in his time in the secrets of the Holy Qur’an- that he described the faith therapy for human condition when a person suffers from a trouble, fear, or weakness, he said:

“I wondered to those who are distressed, how they did not listen to Allah’s saying: (There is no deity except You; exalted are You. Indeed, I have been of the wrongdoers.) (Al-Anbiyaa: 87) because Allah says after it: (So We responded to him and saved him from the distress. And thus do We save the believers.) (Al-Anbiyaa: 88), and I wondered to those who fear how they did not listen to Allah’s saying: (Those to whom hypocrites said, “Indeed, the people have gathered against you, so fear them. But it [merely] increased them in faith, and they said, “Sufficient for us is Allah, and [He is] the best Disposer of affairs.) (Ali-Imraan: 173), for I heard Allah saying after it: (So they returned with favor from Allah and bounty, no harm having touched them.) (Aal-i-Imraan: 174), and I wondered to those who were deceived how they did not listen to Allah (swt)’s saying: (I entrust my affair to Allah. Indeed, Allah is Seeing of [His] servants.) (Al-Ghaafir: 44) for I heard Allah saying after it: (So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted,) (Al-Ghaafir: 45), and I wondered to the one, who wanted the worldly gifts and blessings how he did not listen to Allah’s saying: (What Allah willed [has occurred]; there is no power except in Allah) (Al-Kahf: 39), for I heard Allah saying after it: (It may be that my Lord will give me [something] better than your garden.) (Al-Kahf: 40).

Allah (swt) has created the places and the times, however, He (swt) made some of them exceed others in preference, as an example, He (swt) chose a specific night (night of decree) to be the night sending down the Holy Qur’an’s, so every one knows the dignity of this night over other nights.

لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ (night of decree): The general linguistic meaning of the Arabic word does not give this night its value and does not fulfill its right. Therefore, Allah (swt) says: