الآية رقم (141) - تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ وَلاَ تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ
(141) - “That is a nation which has passed on. It will get [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will get what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.”
There is no repetition in the Noble Qur’an but that it holds a secret, so, it is on us to search for the secrets in every repeated word in the Holy Qur’an, and to search the source and the reasons for the revelation of every word. This verse was mentioned exactly as it was previously, however, the meanings are different due to the context. Hence, it is on us to search in what preceded it and what came after it. The verse that preceded it was in the context of Ibrahim, Ishaq and Yaqub u and Allah U said to them, “For surely your lineage will not intercede for you with Allah U and your fathers are not able to admit you into paradise if you yourselves do not do the work”. As for this verse, what came before it was the claim of the Jews that Ibrahim, Ismail and Ishaq were Jews or Christians so Allah U says to them, “You have no argument or proof on the day of Judgement even if Ibrahim u is a Jew, there is no argument or proof for you with respect to your lack of belief, because, for them is what they have earned and for you is what you have earned. Hence there is a great difference between these two verses that seem to be exactly the same and this is only known by analyzing the verses that come before and after it. The former of the two verses means there is no intercession for you, and the latter means there is no argument or proof for you.
And you will not be asked about their deeds, rather you yourselves will be asked about your own deeds.
By the bounty of Allah, the explanation of the first juz is completed.
الآية رقم (140) - أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأسْبَاطَ كَانُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى قُلْ أَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللّهُ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِندَهُ مِنَ اللّهِ وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
(140) - “Or do you say that Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqub and the Descendants were Jews or Christians? Say, ‘Are you more knowing or is Allah?’ And who is more unjust than one who conceals a testimony he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do.”
The meaning here is that the Jews claim that the Prophets Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq and Yaqub u were all Jews or Christians, so say to them, Oh Muhammad, “Are you more knowledgeable or is Allah?” and there is no doubt at all that Allah U is more knowledgeable! These words are about the Jews, as the Torah had precise details on the description of the Prophet r and glad tidings of his message and his coming. However, the Jews concealed these and their witnessing of the truth and denied all of it when the seal of the Prophets r appeared being of a race other than theirs, that is, not a Jew and not from the line of Yaqub and Ishaq. Hence, they concealed what was in their book on the traits and characteristics of the Prophet r.
There is not a person who does more wrong that one who hides what Allah has revealed in His books and Allah, is not unaware of the truth of what they do.
الآية رقم (139) - قُلْ أَتُحَآجُّونَنَا فِي اللّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ
(139) - “Say, [Oh Muhammad], ‘Do you argue with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? For us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. And we are sincere [in deed and intention] to Him.’”
To debate is to discuss with proofs, and the Jews are people of contention. They are used to always debate with the Prophet r. So, say to them, Oh Muhammad, that Allah is the Lord of all the worlds, and not just the Lord of Muslims alone nor just the Lord of the Jews alone nor the Lord of just one religion from amongst the religions exclusively. And the proof for this is that we begin our prayers saying:
﴾الحَمدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ العالَمينَ﴿
“All praises is (due) to Allah, Lord of the worlds” [Surah Al-Fatihah: 2].
The Muslims are not divisive and we will say what the Noble Qur’an says,
﴾وَهُوَ رَبُّنا وَرَبُّكُم﴿ “He is our Lord and your Lord”.
الآية رقم (138) - صِبْغَةَ اللّهِ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللّهِ صِبْغَةً وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدونَ
(138) - “[And say, ‘Ours is] the religion of Allah. And who is better than Allah in [ordaining] religion? And we are worshippers of Him.’”
‘Sibghah’ is a dye, meaning to mix colours up. Dyes are different as compared to oils in that oils are externally applied while dyes are absorbed by the pores. The ‘sibghah’ of Allah U here is the natural state of human beings, that people are born with. Every child is born upon the natural disposition as what has been told to us by the Most Truthful and Trusted r. However, what happens around him will influence him. The ‘sibghah’ of Allah is the true direction a person should take.
﴾وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدُونَ ﴿ “And we are worshippers of Him”
constantly in servitude and worship of Allah and in obedience to His Commandments.
الآية رقم (137) - فَإِنْ آمَنُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَواْ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللّهُ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
(137) - “So, if they believe as you believe, then they have been [rightly] guided; but if they turn away, they are only in dissension, and Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing.”
This means, if they were to believe in what you all believe in, they will be guided to the Truth. However, if they reject and turn away, then they are in great disagreement with you and in great opposition. So, do not be concerned, Oh Muhammad, over what comes to you from them. For surely, they will conspire against you, try to poison you, rally the disbelievers against you, break their covenants with you and eventually they will try to kill you. However, Allah will protect you from them, and Allah is enough for you.
﴾أَلَيسَ اللَّهُ بِكافٍ عَبدَهُ﴿
“Isn’t Allah enough for His servant?” [Surah Az-Zumar: 36]
and He is all Hearing of whatever they say, all Knowing of whatever they do.
الآية رقم (136) - قُولُواْ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالأسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
(136) - “Say, [Oh believers], ‘We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqub and the tribes and what was given to Musa and Isa and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.’”
Say to those who argue with you from amongst the Jews and others, “We believe in Allah and whatever has been revealed to us – meaning the Qur’an – and whatever has been given to Musa and Isa u, that is, the Torah and the Gospel. And, we believe in every prophet, and we make no distinction between the prophets with respect to our beliefs, rather we humble ourselves to Allah and we fulfil His commands.
الآية رقم (135) - وَقَالُواْ كُونُواْ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تَهْتَدُواْ قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
(135) - “They say, ‘Be Jews or Christians [so] you will be guided.’ Say, ‘Rather, [we follow] the religion of Ibrahim, inclining towards truth, and he was not of the polytheists.’”
The ones who are saying this are the Jews of that time, that is, the time of the Prophet Muhammad r and that the Holy Qur’an was sent to him. It is compulsory for us to differentiate the way we interact with the Jews and the way we interact with the Christians. It is not appropriate for any one of us to use the Noble Qur’an to argue in his animosity with the people of the Book, as the Holy Qur’an emphasizes our connection and interaction with them. The Jews are the worst of people in animosity against the believers while the Christians are the closest by way of love with the believers, and this is in accordance to the verses in the Noble Qur’an. However, the people of revolution and deviation (Da’ish and Annasrah and the likes of them) have misconstrued the interpretation of the words of Allah and have interpreted it to suit their own agendas and whims in order to harm the people of the Book. It is not permissible to interpret the verses of the Book of Allah in a way that has never been known in the context of these verses. This is only known by those who are knowledgeable in the Book of Allah . This verse has called to the way and religion of Ibrahim , which encompasses all of the other revealed religions.
﴾حَنِيفاً﴿ “inclining towards truth” means moving away from polytheism and towards worshipping Allah alone.
الآية رقم (134) - تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ وَلاَ تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
(134) - “That was a nation which has passed on. It will have [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will have what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.”
Hence there is no need for arguments and disputations on rulings that have been passed and the affair has ended.
﴾خَلَتْ﴿“passed on”: the time for it has ended, and its affair is for Allah.
We will not be questioned on things that have happened, nor is it becoming of us to differ over matters that have happened thousands of years ago. These upcoming verses are in rebuttal of the Jews of Madinah who lived in the time of Rasulullahr.
These are nations whose time have passed and you are not responsible over what they used to do:
﴾وَلا تَزِرُ وازِرَةٌ وِزرَ أُخرىٰ﴿
“and you will not be burdened by the burdens of others”
[Surah Al-An’aam: 164], and
﴾كُلُّ نَفسٍ بِما كَسَبَت رَهينَةٌ﴿
“every soul will be held responsible for what it has earned” [Surah Al-Muddaththir: 38].
It is not appropriate for us to spend our lives speaking about what had passed while we are seated on the platform of the past. The future is not built upon the illness of the past. We simply just have to take from our generation, and the way of our Prophet r, that is, whatever Allah U and His Prophet have commanded us to do and we leave what Allah and His Prophet r have forbidden us from.
الآية رقم (133) - أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاء إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُواْ نَعْبُدُ إِلَـهَكَ وَإِلَـهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَقَ إِلَـهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
(133) - “Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub, when he said to his sons, ‘What will you worship after me?’ They said, ‘We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq - one God. And we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.’”
Here the verse is addressed to the Jews in Madinah: Were you all present at that time? They were reminded of this incident with Yaqub u while he was on his death bed with his sons (the grandchildren of Ibrahim) around him. “And to Yaqub u came death” is in the passive voice. Death here is the subject that is placed after the object in the sentence, while the object is Yaqub. It is as if death is something that is disconnected from us. Then it comes to us, as if we have no connection to it. It comes all of a sudden and surprises us, without any choice given to us. It comes in any place and time. Nobody is able to flee from death nor can anyone request for it to be delayed for whatever reason that they may have. Allah U says:
﴾أَينَما تَكونوا يُدرِككُمُ المَوتُ﴿
“Wherever you may be, death will find you” [Surah An-Nisaa’: 78].
الآية رقم (132) - وَوَصَّى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللّهَ اصْطَفَى لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إَلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ
(132) - “And Ibrahim instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Yaqub, [saying], ‘Oh my sons, indeed Allah has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims.’”
﴾وَوَصَّى بِهَا﴿ “And he instructed” with the words of Islam; humbling oneself to the commands of Allah U and to hold fast to them, as well as to worshipping Allah. “Wasiah” is the final word a person says in this world before his death. So, he is sincere in saying it to the ones he loves, such as a father giving his sons parting advice when he is about to pass away. This parting advice (wasiah) contains the summary and experiences of life. And at the approach of death, there would not be any form of lying or cheating, rather the parting advice of a person to his children would have sincere counsel and benefit for them or to others he leaves behind.
الآية رقم (131) - إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
(131) - “When his Lord said to him, ‘Submit’, he said ‘I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.’”
It is enough for him to say “I submit” because submission is only for Allah . However, Prophet Ibrahim u said, ﴾أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ﴿ “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” and this is the difference between the words of Allah and the words of His slaves.
Islam has an all-encompassing meaning consisting of humbling oneself to the commands of Allah, and to entrust your affairs to Allah . We say that humbling oneself to the commands of Allah is entrusting one’s affairs to Allah . And by this meaning, all the revealed religions are actually Islam.
الآية رقم (130) - وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
(130) - “And who would be averse to the religion of Ibrahim except one who makes a fool of himself. And We chose him in this world, and indeed, in the Hereafter, he will be among the righteous.”
﴾وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ﴿“And who would be averse to the religion of Ibrahim” means whoever deviates from it and are biased towards it.
﴾عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ﴿ “to the religion of Ibrahim”. Millah is what a human being is inclined to.
﴾اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ ﴿ “We chose him”: We tested him and he fulfilled
الآية رقم (129) - رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ
(129) - “Our Lord, and send among them a messenger from themselves who will recite to them Your verses and teach them the Book and the Wisdom and purify them. Indeed, You are the Exalted in Might,
﴾يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ﴿ “who will recite to them Your verses” that is the Qur’an.
﴾وَالْحِكْمَةَ﴿ “and the Wisdom”, is the sunnah of the Prophet r. And to arrive at wisdom can also be through studying.
﴾وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ﴿ “and purify them” means to cleanse them, to guide them on the path of goodness.
﴾إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ﴿ “Indeed, You are the Exalted in Mighty, the Wise”: Al-Aziz is He whom nothing can overtake or overpower because of His Might, and none can ask Him regarding what He does. In fact, they will be asked regarding what they do..
الآية رقم (128) - رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
(128) - “Our Lord, and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and from our descendants a Muslim nation [in submission] to You. And show us our rites and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the One who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.”
The “manasik” is the way or method of worship. Worship is a gift; it is not to cause difficulty on people nor for them to resist or dislike.
الآية رقم (127) - وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
(127) - “And [mention] when Ibrahim is raising the foundations of the House and [with him, his son] Ismail, [saying], ‘Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed, You are the Hearing, the Knowing.’”
The verse ﴾وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ﴿ “and when he is raising” is revealed in the present tense, as if indicating that the foundations of the House continues to be raised till today, even when the physical foundations were already raised and completed thousands of years ago. It is as if Allah U is placing the Muslims in front of this momentous occasion and raises the veil of time, as if the raising of the foundations of the House is happening right now.
الآية رقم (126) - وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـَذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
(126) - “And [mention] when Ibrahim said, ‘My Lord, make this a secure city and provide its people with fruits - whoever of them believes in Allah and the Last Day.’ [Allah] said, ‘And whoever disbelieves - I will grant him enjoyment for a little while; then I will force him to the punishment of the Fire, and what a wretched destination.’”
Since the place where the House was located was empty, Ibrahim u asked Allah U to make it a secure and safe town. So, Allah U made it a secure and safe town. Ibrahim u also requested from his Lord to provide fruits for its inhabitants who believe. That is why Ibrahim said:
﴾مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ﴿ “whoever of them believes”. This is in response to what his Lord said to him in the previous verse:
﴾لا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ﴿
“My promise does not reach the wrongdoer” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 124].
الآية رقم (125) - وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
(125) - “And [mention] when We made the House a place of return for the people and [a place of] security. And take, [Oh believers], from the standing place of Ibrahim as a place of prayer. And We commanded Ibrahim and Ismail, [saying], ‘Purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].’”
﴾الْبَيْتَ﴿“the House”: A dwelling place, that is, for rest and tranquillity.
﴾مَثَابَةً﴿ “a place of return”: a place for people return to, everyone who has visited the House wishes to go back to it. Another meaning is that whosoever enters the House, prepares himself to return to it.
﴾وَأَمْناً﴿“and [a place of] security”: This is an affair that is made compulsory on people and not a fact of the place itself as Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) has commanded us to ensure safety to whoever enters the House, and it is not permissible to fight them nor transgress against them.
الآية رقم (124) - وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
(124) - “And [mention, Oh Muhammad], when Ibrahim was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [Allah] said, ‘Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.’ [Ibrahim] said, ‘And of my descendants?’ [Allah] said, ‘My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.’”
When the Jews were in doubt about the issue of the Qiblah, the Noble Qur’an returned to the story of Prophet Ibrahim u and how Allah U tested him. Tests can be through negative things or through good and blessed things. Allah says:
﴾وَنَبلوكُم بِالشَّرِّ وَالخَيرِ فِتنَةً﴿
“and We will test you with good and bad by way of test,” [Surah Al-Anbiya’: 35].
To be elected by Allah U happens after a test, hence, you might be tested by Allah U to purify you and choose you and raise your station.
﴾وَإِذْ ابْتَلَى ﴿ “was tried by his Lord” that is to put him through a test.
His testing is to purify and elect him. Hence, the election occurs through the test and after the trial.
﴾وَإِبراهيمَ الَّذي وَفّىٰ﴿
“and of Ibrahim, who fulfilled [the commandments]” [Surah An-Najm: 37].
الآية رقم (123) - وَاتَّقُواْ يَوْماً لاَّ تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلاَ تَنفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
(123) - “And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, and no compensation will be accepted from it, nor will any intercession benefit it, nor will they be aided.”
﴾وَاتَّقُوا يَوْماً﴿ “and fear a Day”: Place between you and that day a barrier (of protection)
These people will not be helped on that Day as they used to deny and lie against Prophet Muhammad r.
الآية رقم (122) - يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
(122) - “Oh Children of Israel, remember My favour which I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds.”
The ones being addressed are those who are related or are descendants of Prophet Yaqub u Allah has favoured them by mentioning the traits of Muhammad in the Torah. The proof for this is the verse prior to this in that the character traits of the Prophet r were not mentioned in any of the divine revealed books the way they have been mentioned in the Torah.