(… فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ ) ([He is] the cleaver of daybreak …): He is the One who splits open the dawn. Does this happen while the sun is rising, or before it? The answer: It happens during the period that things start becoming clear to the eyesight. We find that it is of the grace and mercy of Allah (swt) upon His creation that He makes this ‘entering upon morning’ happen before the rays of the sun reach the eyes. Thus, the brightness comes gradually and becomes a tranquil light that diffuses the darkness, until the sun has fully risen.
So it means that He is the One who causes the separation from the darkness for the dawn to begin coming in, for darkness is something which is piled up.
(… وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا… ) (…and has made the night for rest …): These are two blessings which are mentioned in succession. The first is the breaking of the dawn and the gradual entering of daytime, and the second is the night and rest.
Of the favours of Allah (swt) upon us is that He created for us everything which would allow us to build our lives. For example, He has withheld from us the rays of the sun during the night. After the advancement of knowledge, it has been discovered that constant exposure to X-rays could cause harm, thus a person is advised against having prolonged exposure to them. So, what more the sun rays? Allah (swt) did not expose human beings to the sun rays for twenty-four hours, but only half of that time. As for the other half, it is night-time, which provides rest for the human being, so that he will be able to carry out his daytime activities with energy and great zeal.
(… وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ۚ… ) (…and the sun and moon for calculation.…): To illustrate this point, we will use the clock as an example. The clock is used for counting, thus it can be described as (calculator), as it counts the hours, minutes and seconds too.
Another example is the wheel. It was created, together with its parts, with precision, in order to function well. The earth goes through two rotations, a daily one, which is completed in twenty-four hours, and a yearly one, which comprises of the four seasons. Therefore, the sun is used to count the years and days, while the moon is used to count a month. The moon itself will be changing in shape, from crescent to full moon to crescent again. Thus, Allah (swt) makes the night and day and the movement of the earth an indication of the greatness of His creation. They also point to the truthful conveyance of the Prophet (saws) from His Lord (swt) is He.
( ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ… ) (…That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing): Allah’s name (the Exalted in Might) means ‘The One who will not be overcome, and no one is able to make any decisions over His Will’. The name (The Knowing) means ‘The One who knows everything’.
He is the One who laid out everything connected to the means of living and the institution of life in this world. For example, since before man was created, He had prepared for them the air, water, sun, moon and stars; all made subservient to serve the life of man.