The noble Surahs continue their trip in breaking through the future. In previous Surahs, the speech was about the Kawthar, which Allah (swt) has favoured His Prophet (saws) with, and that his enemy is the one cut off, and told us about the victory He (swt) granted to His Prophet (saws) in life, Allah (swt) then, in this Surah, gives an example of the enemies of the Prophet (saws). Allah (swt) willed to choose a person who hated the Prophet (saws) and his (saws) calling and was in clash with from the beginning and on. Allah (swt) chose this person from the Prophet’s (saws) close relatives; his uncle Abu Lahab, about whom these verses were revealed and are to be recited till the Day of Judgement.
Allah (swt) promised Abu Lahab in the hereafter with destruction and punishment while at the time when he was still alive and had the opportunity to enter Islam, but Allah (swt) Who the Holy Qur’an is His speech and the One Who has the knowledge of the future and the unseen, has willed that Abu Lahab would never believe nor even would it occur to his mind to believe.
That is because Abu Lahab has not only disbelieved the Prophet (saws) but transgressed in his disbelief and his wife as well did. Abu Lahab averted people from the way of Allah saying to them about the Prophet (saws): Do not believe him, he is a liar. This man always used to stand against the Prophet (saws) and accusing him of lying, even when the Prophet (saws) was under siege in the valley of Abi Talib, not anyone of Bani Hashim accepted this except Abu Lahab who agreed to isolate Bani Hashim although he belongs to them.
Accordingly, this Surah was revealed talking about this situation and deciding the ruling against Abu Lahab and his wife in advance.