الآية رقم (170) - فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِم مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلاَّ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

(170) - {Rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty, and they receive good tidings about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them - that there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.}

{فَرِحِينَ} {Rejoicing}: Why does Allah (swt) mention the state of joy that surrounds them? Because the atmosphere of sadness surrounds the families of the martyrs who scarify by themselves, their blood and their souls, so Allah (swt) wants to reassure the families and beloved of the martyrs that: Their martyrs are happy, so why do their families grieve?

فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ{Rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty}: He said: (of His bounty), not of his justice. Bounty is above justice; justice is to be awarded according to work, as Allah (swt) says:

وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا وَكَفَى بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ

{And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [even] the weight of a mustard seed, we will bring it forth. And sufficient are We as accountant.} (Al-Anbiyaa: 47)

This is justice, as for bounty, is more than what a person deserves, so what honor is this for the one who offered himself, his soul, and his blood as a sacrifice for his country, his religion, his sanctities, his honor and his money. There is nothing other than this Qur’anic expression that comforts the hearts of the bereaved with their martyrs more than this saying:

فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ {Rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty}

Not only this but He (swt) says:

وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِم مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ {an d they receive good tidings about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them}: Receiving good tidings in Arabic refers to joy, and it is taken (in Arabic) from the complexion because when a person is happy, his complexion shins.

أَلاَّ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ {there will be no fear concerning them}: Grief is for what has happened, for those who are after them from among the believers, are either afraid of this fate of being killed, or they are grieve for the loss of loved ones.

الآية رقم (169) - وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ

(169) - {And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision,}

وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ{And never think of}: What is meant here is that human thoughts are not correct with regard to the martyrs who sacrifice themselves for the sake of Allah, for the sake of the homeland, and for the sake of religion, honor and sanctities.

وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتًا {And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead.}: Do not think that those who were killed in the cause of Allah (swt) are dead. Allah (swt) denied the status of death to the martyrs, while He said in many verses:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ وَإِنَّمَا تُوَفَّوْنَ أُجُورَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

{Every soul will taste death, and you will only be given your [full] compensation on the Day of Resurrection.} (Aal-Imran: 185)

 

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تَمُوتَ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ الله كِتَابًا مُّؤَجَّلاً

{And it is not [possible] for one to die except by permission of Allah at a decree determined.} (Aal-Imran: 145)

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ أَجَلٌ فَإِذَا جَاء أَجَلُهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً وَلاَ يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ

{And for every nation is a [specified] term. So when their time has come, they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede [it].} (Al-A’raaf: 34)

If you look at the martyr and the wounds on his body, you will think he is dead, but Allah (swt) states that he is alive, not only this but:

{عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ} {With their Lord,}: Hence, there is a difference between what is with you and what is (with your Lord). When talking about a worldly issue, the point of view would be a human prescribe, (with you) in terms of human view would be incomplete because this life is changeable, so you are alive now, but you will die, but when you are martyred, but when Allah (swt) says:

أَحْيَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ{they are alive with their Lord,}: That is, they will not die for they are in a unfinished life with their Lord.

يُرْزَقُونَ {receiving provision}: Provision is one of the means of life. Man needs sustenance during his life not after his death, but Allah (swt) wants to assure to all people and the families of the martyrs, for not to grieve, that the  martyrs are in the highest stage; because they will not pass through the after-death life, rather they move directly to life with Allah (swt).

الآية رقم (168) - الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ لإِخْوَانِهِمْ وَقَعَدُواْ لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا قُلْ فَادْرَؤُوا عَنْ أَنفُسِكُمُ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

(168) - {Those who said about their brothers while sitting [at home], "If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed." Say, "Then prevent death from yourselves, if you should be truthful."}

Here the Holy Qur’an deals with one of the most dangerous issues, which is the issue of hypocrisy within the society.

الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ لإِخْوَانِهِمْ وَقَعَدُواْ لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا {Those who said about their brothers while sitting [at home], “If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed.}: The hypocrites incited the Muslims who returned from the Battle of Uhud and raised suspicions about the commands of Allah (swt) and His decree and everything that happened in the Battle of Uhud, saying, “If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed.” Whereas they sat down and left behind the Muslim army before they said that. Look at the divine response:

قُلْ فَادْرَؤُوا عَنْ أَنفُسِكُمُ الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ{Then prevent death from yourselves, if you should be truthful.”}: Meaning, The one who knows the way of safety from killing, let him show us the path of safety from death, for Allah (swt) challenges them that a person does not die except for his time, but the most honorable death is that when a person is killed as a martyr in the cause of Allah (swt).

الآية رقم (167) - وَلْيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْاْ قَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَوِ ادْفَعُواْ قَالُواْ لَوْ نَعْلَمُ قِتَالاً لاَّتَّبَعْنَاكُمْ هُمْ لِلْكُفْرِ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَقْرَبُ مِنْهُمْ لِلإِيمَانِ يَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَكْتُمُونَ

(167) - {And that He might make evident those who are hypocrites. For it was said to them, "Come, fight in the way of Allah or [at least] defend." They said, "If we had known [there would be] fighting, we would have followed you." They were nearer to disbelief that day than to faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allah is most Knowing of what they conceal}.

Definitely Allah (swt) knows.

وَلْيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ {And that He might make evident those who are hypocrites.}: In the Battle of Uhud after the defeat and that some have let down with the hypocrites, and others did not respond to the Prophet (saws) while he was calling them, so Allah is making evident those who are hypocrites for He (swt) fully knows this matter beforehand, but He (swt) linked the results with the causes, and gave the orders while left the choice to man.

Allah (swt) knows beforehand what you will choose, for He is holding you accountable for your choice, not for His knowledge; because his knowledge is from his eternal existence and of His attributes that the human mind cannot encompass no matter how long the mind goes in discovering sciences, it will not be able to know the nature of Allah (swt)’s knowledge and His wisdom, except what Allah (swt) has told us about, remembering always the words of Allah (swt):

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ

{There is nothing like unto Him.} (Ash-Shura: 11)

وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْاْ قَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَوِ ادْفَعُواْ { For it was said to them, “Come, fight in the way of Allah or [at least] defend.”}: In the beginning, when Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul withdrew with a third of the army when it was said to them: Come, fight in the cause of Allah, or at least defend your homes in Medina, they said:

لَوْ نَعْلَمُ قِتَالاً لاَّتَّبَعْنَاكُمْ {If we had known [there would be] fighting, we would have followed you.”}: But since Allah (swt) knows the secret and what is even more hidden, so He brought out what is in their souls and made it clear to us as if they had said it. That is why Allah (swt) says:

يَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاللّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَكْتُمُونَ {saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allah is most Knowing of what they conceal}.

الآية رقم (166) - وَمَا أَصَابَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ فَبِإِذْنِ اللّهِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(166) - {And what struck you on the day the two armies met was by permission of Allah that He might make evident the [true] believers.}

What happened to you on the day of Uhud is by Allah’s (swt) permission, so that no one would say that something under Allah’s sovereignty is taking place outside of His (swt) will, the answer is in the previous verse. So Allah (swt) clarifies that because you violated the commands of the Messenger (saws), consequently what happened was from yourselves, and it is by the command of Allah (swt); because nothing happens outside His will.

الآية رقم (165) - أَوَلَمَّا أَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَدْ أَصَبْتُم مِّثْلَيْهَا قُلْتُمْ أَنَّى هَـذَا قُلْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ أَنْفُسِكُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

(165) - {Why [is it that] when a [single] disaster struck you [on the day of Uhud], although you had struck [the enemy in the battle of Badr] with one twice as great, you said, "From where is this?" Say, "It is from yourselves." Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.}

قُلْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ أَنْفُسِكُمْ{Say, “It is from yourselves.}: Islam linked the means with the causes, the archers violated the war plan and did not follow the means, so they, themselves, caused the loss.

إِنَّ اللّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.}:

He (swt) is able to help you after that, and He is able to give you a setback after which you will be victorious.

الآية رقم (164) - لَقَدْ مَنَّ اللّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤمِنِينَ إِذْ بَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلالٍ مُّبِينٍ

(164) - {Certainly did Allah confer [great] favor upon the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error.}

Allah (swt) has conferred favor upon us with six matters; first:

{إِذْ بَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً} {He sent among them a Messenger}: Allah (swt) conferred great favor upon us when He sent us the Messenger Muhammad (saws). This leads us to speak about his (saws) great position for us and reply those who forbid calling him by (Our Master), and those who refuse to ask Allah to confer blessing upon him after the call to prayer (Athan), ignoring that we have to follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (saws). What is the definition of the call to prayer? It is a notification of the beginning of the prayer time, and it is a confirmed Sunnah of the Prophet (saws) and we adhere to it as was taught to our master Bilal. However, the Messenger (saws) was among the noble Companions and they used to ask Allah to confer blessing upon him whenever they saw him (saws), and Allah (swt) has commanded us as He commanded them:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

{Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace.} (Al-Ahzaab: 56)

Hence, Allah (swt) did confer great favor upon the believers by sending among them a Messenger from themselves. Someone might say: Why did he say: (upon the believers), not upon humanity? Of course, the Prophet (saws) was sent to all the mankind, as Allah (swt) says:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

{And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.} (Al-Anbiyaa: 107)

But there is a part of them who do not believe in him (saws), so they do not take from him and did not benefit from his guidance. Second:

مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ {from themselves}: He (saws) was a human being so that they could follow him and imitate him. Third:

يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ{reciting to them His verses}: The Arabic word of (verses) may refer to two things: Either the universal signs, as Allah (swt) says:

إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لِّأُوْلِي الألْبَابِ

{Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding.} (Aal-Imran: 190)

Or the read verses:

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ

{These are the verses of the clear Book.} (Yusuf: 1)

Every verse in the Holy Qur’an is miraculous, and the recitation in Arabic is something that follows or follows something because the Prophet (saws) used to read the Qur’an and recite it word after word as it was revealed. So teaching people how to recite the Qur’an in itself is a blissing until Allah (swt) inherits the earth and those on it, The Prophet (saws) said:

“Whoever recites a letter from the Book of Allah, he will be credited with a good deed, and a good deed gets a ten-fold reward. I do not say that Alif-Lam-Mim is one letter, but Alif is a letter, Lam is a letter and Mim is a letter.”[1]

Consider how many good deeds are deposited in the scales who recite the Qur’an, therefore, we are interested in memorizing the Noble Qur’an and in its accurate reading as the Prophet (saws) recited it. The fourth:

وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ{and purify them}: So purify their souls with this Qur’an and his Sunnah as well, and raise their position. The fifth:

وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ {and teaching them the Book.}: Teaching the Book means interpreting and clarifying the meanings of the Holy Qur’an, Because Allah (swt) says:

وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

{And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.} (An-Nahl: 44)

The sixth:

وَالْحِكْمَةَ{the wisdom}: Allah (swt) says:

وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا

{And whatever the Messenger has given you – take; and what he has forbidden you – refrain from. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty} (Al-Hashr: 7)

and He says:

مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ

{He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah} (An-Nisaa:8)

And the only human being authorized to legislate after Allah (swt) is the Messenger of Allah (saws).

(The Wisdom) is the Sunnah of the Prophet (saws), his words, actions, approval and all what he brought, the evidence is Allah’s (swt) saying:

وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلَى فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ

{And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom. Indeed, Allah is ever Subtle and Acquainted [with all things]. (Al-Ahzaab: 34)

وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلالٍ مُّبِينٍ{although they had been before in manifest error.}: All mankind and the Arabs before the Qur’an was revealed were in the darkness and ignorance, they were tribes killing each other for the sake of a silly reason as horse race.

[1] Sunan at-Timidhi: Chapter: The virtues of the Qur’an, Hadith No. 2910.

الآية رقم (163) - هُمْ دَرَجَاتٌ عِندَ اللّهِ واللّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

(163) - {They are [varying] degrees in the sight of Allah, and Allah is Seeing of whatever they do.}

So there are degrees in Heaven and not just one.

الآية رقم (162) - أَفَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَ اللّهِ كَمَن بَاء بِسَخْطٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

(162) - {So is one who pursues the pleasure of Allah like one who brings upon himself the anger of Allah and whose refuge is Hell? And wretched is the destination.}

After reproaching those who left the mountain and disobeyed the command of the Prophet (saws) for the spoils, Allah (swt) states a comparison, for a person has to walk in the path that pleases Allah (swt), however, pleasing Allah (swt) is the closest thing to man for a simple reason that man, by his instinct which is created in him, tends to be religious, with evidence that Allah (swt) says:

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتَ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَن تَقُولُواْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ

{And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam – from their loins – their descendants and made them testify of themselves, [saying to them], “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes, we have testified.” [This] – lest you should say on the day of Resurrection, “Indeed, we were of this unaware.”} (Al-A’raaf: 172)

This covenant of instinct is embedded in every human being, Allah’s (swt) pleasure is to follow His commands, Allah (swt) has not assigned you what is difficult for you, even acts of worship such as prayer, fasting, Hajj and zakat are within your ability.

لاَ يُكَلِّفُ اللّهُ نَفْسًا إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا

{Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity.} (Al-Baqara: 286)

But is Allah’s pleasure connected with the worship? Or with the dealings? Or with ethics? The answer is with them all. For we cannot separate the purposes from the rituals, how to justify that you fast, pray, perform Hajj and give zakat, and yet you lie!! So, Allah’s pleasure with you depends upon your doing of good and applying your duties towards His creation.

So the answer to this verse is definitely not; because whoever pursues the pleasure of Allah (swt), Allah (swt) will grant him success in this world, and his end will be to the gardens of bliss, whereas the one who brings upon himself the anger of Allah, his refuge is Hell and the wretched destination.

الآية رقم (161) - وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَغُلَّ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ

(161) - {It is not [attributable] to any prophet that he would act unfaithfully [in regard to war booty]. And whoever betrays, [taking unlawfully], will come with what he took on the Day of Resurrection. Then will every soul be [fully] compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged.}

This is a lesson for those who left their places, in which the Prophet (saws) put them, when they saw their companions were taking the booty, although they knew that the Prophet (saws) was there at the head of the believers, so definitely there would be no unfaithfulness in regards of the booty. So there is not any reason for the archers to leave their places, while they fully knew that their share of the spoils was preserved. Consequently, they caused the defeat in that battle, and more than seventy of the Companions were martyred. Mentioning the Day of Resurrection is followed with His (swt) saying:

ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ {Then will every soul be [fully] compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged.}: So every person will be held accountable for what he has done:

وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَى (39) وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَى (38) ثُمَّ يُجْزَاهُ الْجَزَاء الْأَوْفَى

{And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives- % And that his effort is going to be seen % Then he will be recompensed for it with the fullest recompense} (An-Najm: 39-41)

Hence, every soul shall be compensated for what it earned, and the person shall not be wronged at all.

وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا وَكَفَى بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ

{And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [even] the weight of a mustard seed, we will bring it forth. And sufficient are We as accountant.} (Al-Anbiyaa: 47)

الآية رقم (160) - إِن يَنصُرْكُمُ اللّهُ فَلاَ غَالِبَ لَكُمْ وَإِن يَخْذُلْكُمْ فَمَن ذَا الَّذِي يَنصُرُكُم مِّن بَعْدِهِ وَعَلَى اللّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكِّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

(160) - {If Allah should aid you, no one can overcome you; but if He should forsake you, who is there that can aid you after Him? And upon Allah let the believers rely.}

Whatever forces are fighting you, if Allah (swt) is with you, you will never lose. You do not triumph by means or numbers, but rather with sincerity of faith after preparation and taking all available means and reliance on Allah (swt).

وَإِن يَخْذُلْكُمْ فَمَن ذَا الَّذِي يَنصُرُكُم مِّن بَعْدِهِ {but if He should forsake you, who is there that can aid you after Him?}: This is an answer to Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, the head of hypocrisy, and to all the hypocrites in the city who started spreading rumors at that time, and behind them were the Jews, so the movement of hypocrisy in the civil society emerged from the Jews, for Allah (swt) here says to the believers: {but if He should forsake you, who is there that can aid you after Him?} When does Allah (swt) forsake you? It is clear by His saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ

{O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant firmly your feet.} (Muhammad: 7)

Accordingly, they lost in the Battle of Uhud because they have violated the orders of Allah (swt), so if we do not take the reasons such as learning, establishing factories, establishing civilization, then we will be defeated.

الآية رقم (159) - فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لاَنفَضُّواْ مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ

(159) - {So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah. Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him].}

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ {So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them}: This is a declarative sentence, which was revealed in Uhud, but the words of the Qur’an comprehend time and place. Sahl bin Saad said:

“I witnessed the Prophet (saws) when his canine tooth was broken, and his face was injured, and I know who washed the blood from his face, and who brought the water to him, and what did he put on his wound until the blood stopped, Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad (saws) washed the blood from his face, and Ali, (may Allah be pleased with him) brought the water to her when she was washing the blood off her father’s face, she burned a mat, so when it became ashes, she took some of that ashes and placed it on his face until the blood stopped. Then he (saws) said on that day:

“Allah’s Wrath has become severe on the people who harmed His Prophet”

Then he stayed an hour and then said:

“O Allah! Forgive my nation, for they have no knowledge.”[1]

So by mercy from Allah (swt) he (saws) was lenient with them in this very hard situation of Uhud, where the archers have disobeyed his order, and a third of the army has defected, despite that, he was asking forgiveness for them. This indicates that the  Prophet (saws) is the kindest of people in heart, the softest of people in speech, and the best in dealing with people, he used to sit where the meeting ends, and he did not use to pulll his hand until the other person did, when he was shaking hands, and he did not accept anyone to kiss his hands. He (saws) said:

“Do not praise me as the Christians praised ‘Issa bin Maryam (pbuh). I am no more than the slave of Allah and His Messenger.”[2]

And when A man came to him (saws) and his voice trembled out of awe as he spoke to him (saws). The Prophet (saws) said to him:

“Be calm, for I am not a king. Verily, I am only the son of a woman who ate dried meat.”[3]

This is how the Prophet (saws) was. After all that, how does it come to describe Islam as a religion of terrorism, criminality, hatred, the abolition of the other, and murder, how can you be a Muslim when you are not following the guidance of the Messenger of Allah (swt) while He (swt) says to you:

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

{There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.}? (Al-Ahzaab: 21)

So our Prophet (saws) is an excellent pattern in everything, hence whoever wants to follow Islam he should look at the Sunnah of the Prophet (saws), his actions, sayings, guidance, behavior and biography.

وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لاَنفَضُّواْ مِنْ حَوْلِكَ {And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you}: Allah (swt) says to all people that they should be kind-hearted, just like the Prophet (saws).

فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ{So pardon them}: So pardon them for everything they did. To pardon, afore-mentioned, is to forget the matter completely, but it is not enough for you to pardon them, rather:

وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ {and ask forgiveness for them}: And if you do not ask forgiveness for them, Allah (swt) will not forgive them.

وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ {and consult them in the matter.}: The Prophet (saws) consulted them, but they were wrong, because they advised the Prophet (saws) to go out to Uhud, while the Prophet (saws) wanted to stay in Medina, but he acted according to the counselling. This is a response to those who tend to say that the religion of Islam is an old- fashioned religion that ended at a specific time and a specific place.

Although they took a wrong decision, but the principle of Shura (Consultation) is a correct, and if a mistake occurs in it once, that does not mean we abolish it, so what is this great democracy that this verse establishes!

وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ {and consult them in the matter.}: This is a basic principle, and it is applied according to time prescription, so we say that Islam is not a consistent program, but rather it is fixed values, the values of justice, piety and consultation, the values of goodness and love, these constant values has been established by Islam, they are as pillars at the level of politics.

فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ{And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah.}: If the matter was according to consultation, as happened in Uhud, and you decided and took the decision; meaning you took the reasons, then after that you have to rely on Allah (swt). Hence, one of the conditions of reliance on Allah (swt) is to adopt worldly means, taking into consideration that Allah is the One Who linked these reasons to the results, so He said:

فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ {And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah.}: Reliance is the work of the heart not the work of the body, so you cannot say: I have an exam, so I will rely on Allah (swt) to succeed without studying. This is not reliance on Allah (swt), the idea is to do your best, taking all the necessary precautions and rely on Allah (swt).

إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ {Allah loves those who rely [upon Him].}: Because the one who trusts in Allah (swt) lives in spiritual comfort which no one can reach at all, since he has taken the means, and relied on Allah, realizing that matters are in the hands of Allah (swt) alone. Consequently, after working and taking the reasons when Allah’s will is fulfilled, so he will be patient and satisfied with Allah’s decree.

[1] Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer: Chapter of the letter (S), sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idy, Hadith No. 5872.

[2] Sahih al-Bukhari: Chapter 16, Hadith No. 6442.

[3] Sunan Ibn Majah: Book of Food, Chapter of the Dried Meat, Hadith No. 3312.

الآية رقم (158) - وَلَئِن مُّتُّمْ أَوْ قُتِلْتُمْ لإِلَى الله تُحْشَرُونَ

(158) - {And whether you die or are killed, unto Allah you will be gathered.}

In the previous verse, being killed in the cause of Allah (swt) is mentioned before death, but here it is vice versk. In the Holy Qur’an every word has a wisdom, has meaning, and a purpose. In the previous verse, the talk was about the result, and here the talk is about the general rule for all people; whoever dies normally or as a martyr, his soul gets out of his body, but normal death is more likely to happen, for that Allah (swt) mentions it first.

لإِلَى الله تُحْشَرُونَ{unto Allah you will be gathered.}: Here the end of the verse was changed from the previous verse. Allah (swt) does not say forgiveness and mercy, but rather mentions the final end. So you imagine Allah’s mercy, Allah’s giving, Allah’s pleasure, Allah’s forgiveness, and Allah’s wrath and punishment when the humans will be gathered to Allah (swt).

الآية رقم (157) - وَلَئِن قُتِلْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَوْ مُتُّمْ لَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَحْمَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ

(157) - {And if you are killed in the cause of Allah or die - then forgiveness from Allah and mercy are better than whatever they accumulate [in this world].}

وَلَئِن قُتِلْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ {And if you are killed in the cause of Allah or die}: This is a general law; whoever is killed defending his land, his home, his honor and his money, then he is a martyr.

لَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَحْمَةٌ {then forgiveness from Allah and mercy}: The forgiveness of Allah (swt) is more important and greater, and the mercy of Allah (swt) for the one who is martyred is represented by making him alive with his Lord, as He (swt) said, this is solace for the hearts of the martyr’s families.

الآية رقم (156) - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَقَالُواْ لإِخْوَانِهِمْ إِذَا ضَرَبُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ أَوْ كَانُواْ غُزًّى لَّوْ كَانُواْ عِندَنَا مَا مَاتُواْ وَمَا قُتِلُواْ لِيَجْعَلَ اللّهُ ذَلِكَ حَسْرَةً فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاللّهُ يُحْيِـي وَيُمِيتُ وَاللّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

(156) - {you who have believed, do not be like those who disbelieved and said about their brothers when they traveled through the land or went out to fight, "If they had been with us, they would not have died or have been killed," so Allah makes that [misconception] a regret within their hearts. And it is Allah who gives life and causes death, and Allah is Seeing of what you do.}

The hypocrites used to say to the believers that they had stayed with them, no harm would have touched them.

لَّوْ كَانُواْ عِندَنَا مَا مَاتُو{If they had been with us, they would not have died}: So they attribute death and life to causes, whereas death is related to the term, not to the causes, but you have to take the means and you are not allowed to throw yourself into death, in other words, you must not throw yourself in front of the train, and do not throw yourself off the roof of the building.

لِيَجْعَلَ اللّهُ ذَلِكَ حَسْرَةً فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ {so Allah makes that [misconception] a regret within their hearts}: They do not believe that death and life are in the hands of Allah (swt) and not in the hands of the causes, so believing that reasons are the causes of death, makes mourning is severe for the dead’s family.  You must believe that the term is over, and have to accept the pain as possible as Allah (swt) wanted.

الآية رقم (155) - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

(155) - {Indeed, those of you who turned back on the day the two armies met, it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned. But Allah has already forgiven them. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing.}

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ {Indeed, those of you who turned back}: Those are who fled from the battle and descended from the mountain, who wanted this world instead of the Hereafter.

إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ {it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned}: In fact, Satan has no authority over humans, but when a person falls into a misstep, Satan sees him weak, so take the chance to whisper to him if this person neglects the remembrance of Allah (swt). In another verse:

وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلاَّ أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي فَلاَ تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُواْ أَنفُسَكُم مَّا أَنَاْ بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُمْ بِمُصْرِخِيَّ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَآ أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

{And Satan will say when the matter has been concluded, “Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you, and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allah] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment.”} (Ibrahim: 22)

So no one should use Satan as an excuse for himself, rather he should use the excuse that he made a mistake.

إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ {it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned.}: Because of their behaviours, Satan came to them and led them to their doing.

وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ {But Allah has already forgiven them}: Allah (swt) has pardoned them, and repentance is hoped for the cessation of wrongdoing. The largest reform movement in society is called repentance, when a person repents, he decides not to go back to what he has done of everything bad. Islam always calls for all the elements of goodness, this is why the door of repentance is opened.

إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ {Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing.}: Allah (swt) forgives but here by his Forbearing; Allah (swt) is merciful to this person when he falls into a stumble. So that when the archers violated the commands and looked forward the spoils, Allah (swt) forgave them by his Forbearing.

الآية رقم (154) - ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن بَعْدِ الْغَمِّ أَمَنَةً نُّعَاسًا يَغْشَى طَآئِفَةً مِّنكُمْ وَطَآئِفَةٌ قَدْ أَهَمَّتْهُمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ يَظُنُّونَ بِاللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ ظَنَّ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَقُولُونَ هَل لَّنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ مِن شَيْءٍ قُلْ إِنَّ الأَمْرَ كُلَّهُ لِلَّهِ يُخْفُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِم مَّا لاَ يُبْدُونَ لَكَ يَقُولُونَ لَوْ كَانَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ مَّا قُتِلْنَا هَاهُنَا قُل لَّوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ لَبَرَزَ الَّذِينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَتْلُ إِلَى مَضَاجِعِهِمْ وَلِيَبْتَلِيَ اللّهُ مَا فِي صُدُورِكُمْ وَلِيُمَحَّصَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

(154) - {Then after distress, He sent down upon you security [in the form of] drowsiness, overcoming a faction of you, while another faction worried about themselves, thinking of Allah other than the truth - the thought of ignorance, saying, "Is there anything for us [to have done] in this matter?" Say, "Indeed, the matter belongs completely to Allah." They conceal within themselves what they will not reveal to you. They say, "If there was anything we could have done in the matter, some of us would not have been killed right here." Say, "Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be killed would have come out to their death beds." [It was] so that Allah might test what is in your breasts and purify what is in your hearts. And Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts.}

{أَنزَلَ} {sent down}: Means that it was descended from the sky, and it was not due to the usual cause of drowsiness. It was by a divine order that was revealed by Allah (swt), out of His kindness and compassion for them.

وَطَآئِفَةٌ قَدْ أَهَمَّتْهُمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ يَظُنُّونَ بِاللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ ظَنَّ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ {while another faction worried about themselves, thinking of Allah other than the truth – the thought of ignorance,}: Those who followed Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul, who was the head of hypocrisy, consequently they became part of the group of hypocrites.

يَظُنُّونَ بِاللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ ظَنَّ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ{thinking of Allah other than the truth – the thought of ignorance}: Allah (swt) is the absolute Truth, and He revealed the Qur’an with the truth, however, the truth is the stable thing. Some said: Allah (swt) promised us victory and we were defeated, so they returned to the pre-Islamic way of thinking.

يَقُولُونَ هَل لَّنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ مِن شَيْءٍ{saying, “Is there anything for us [to have done] in this matter?}: They said that the Prophet (saws) was the one who let made them leave their homes to fight, and that had not they leave, this would not have happened… and that they had nothing to do with the matter.

Knowing that the Prophet (saws), in the Battle of Uhud, wanted to stay in Medina, but he acted according to the consultation with his companions. However, the hypocrites wanted to make a confusion in the ranks, so they said: We have nothing of the matter, the matter was not ours, and we did not take this decision.

قُلْ إِنَّ الأَمْرَ كُلَّهُ لِلَّهِ {Say, “Indeed, the matter belongs completely to Allah.”}: As a result, everything that happens is from Allah (swt), but when you violate Allah’s commands, evil will befall you.

﴿يُخْفُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِم مَّا لاَ يُبْدُونَ لَكَ﴾ {They conceal within themselves what they will not reveal to you.}: This is hypocrisy, to hide what is in yourself and show something else that contradicts it.

يَقُولُونَ لَوْ كَانَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ مَّا قُتِلْنَا هَاهُنَا{They say, “If there was anything we could have done in the matter, some of us would not have been killed right here.”}: Meaning, we wanted to fight inside Al-Madinah, we didn’t want to go out anywhere.

قُل {Say,}: Allah (swt) gives the answer. Allah (swt) says to the Prophet (saws): “Say”, and if the Qur’an was from other than Allah (swt), he would have removed the word “Say.”

لَّوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ لَبَرَزَ الَّذِينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَتْلُ إِلَى مَضَاجِعِهِمْ {“Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be killed would have come out to their death beds.”}: You will meet Allah’s written destination whether you are in your bed or anywhere, you will never escape your destiny. This is a settled matter, and in the verses that preceded, Allah (swt) said:

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تَمُوتَ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ الله كِتَابًا مُّؤَجَّلاً

{And it is not [possible] for one to die except by permission of Allah at a decree determined.} (Aal-Imran: 145)

وَلِيُمَحَّصَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ {It was] so that Allah might test what is in your breasts and purify what is in your hearts}: It is a trial and accurate search, so that Allah (swt) may distinguish the bad from the good, and it is for what is in the heart, As the Prophet (saws) said:

“In the body there is a piece of flesh, and the whole body is sound if it is sound, but the whole body is corrupt if it is corrupt. It is the heart.”[1]

وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ {And Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts.}: With everything that is hidden in the breasts; because you may say something other than what you hide in your heart, showing other than what is true to you, this is the definition of hypocrisy. Verily, there is hypocrisy of belief and hypocrisy of behavior, and the most dangerous disease that afflicts any society is the disease of hypocrisy; that is because you can see the real enemy in front of you and beware him, as for the one who is in your side and shows you one thing and hides another, and says other than what he believes, he is the hypocrite and he is more dangerous. The Holy Qur’an states two types of hypocrisy:

– Hypocrisy of belief: Of which its owner conceals disbelief and association with Allah (swt) but shows faith. This is what the Holy Qur’an said about:

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا

{Indeed, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire – and never will you find for them a helper} (An-Nisaa: 145)

– Behavioral hypocrisy:  It is when doings some behaviors such as lying and slandering in order to obtain a gain, position, or anything worldly, in this case you will be hypocrite for the sake of reaching your goals. This is the most dangerous disease because it destroys societies, since you do not know the honest from the liar, you don’t know the good from the bad, Indeed, the spread of hypocrisy leads to great corruption.

[1] Sahih al-Bukahri, Book of Belief, Hadith No. 52.

الآية رقم (153) - إِذْ تُصْعِدُونَ وَلاَ تَلْوُونَ عَلَى أحَدٍ وَالرَّسُولُ يَدْعُوكُمْ فِي أُخْرَاكُمْ فَأَثَابَكُمْ غُمَّاً بِغَمٍّ لِّكَيْلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلاَ مَا أَصَابَكُمْ وَاللّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

(153) - { [Remember] when you [fled and] climbed [the mountain] without looking aside at anyone while the Messenger was calling you from behind. So Allah repaid you with distress upon distress so you would not grieve for that which had escaped you [of victory and spoils of war] or [for] that which had befallen you [of injury and death]. And Allah is [fully] Acquainted with what you do.}

The lesson that teaches victory in the big matter is not considered as a defeat in the small matter, what happened is a small matter, but this lesson teaches the permanent victory.

وَلاَ تَلْوُونَ عَلَى أحَدٍ {without looking aside at anyone}: Because you were afraid and hurry.

وَالرَّسُولُ يَدْعُوكُمْ فِي أُخْرَاكُمْ {while the Messenger was calling you from behind}: The Prophet (saws) calmed them down and called back those who fled during the Battle of Uhud.

فَأَثَابَكُمْ غُمَّاً بِغَمٍّ {So Allah repaid you with distress upon distress}: look at the mercy and kindness of Allah (swt) with the believers that He considers the distress as repay, They, in addition to the grief of defeat that occurred there, they were repaid with another grief that some of them were martyrs, and there was also grief that they had violated the orders of the Prophet (saws), Imam Ali (may Allah honor his face) was asked: “O Commander of the Faithful, what are the mightiest soldiers of Allah? He said:

“Ten, first of all the mountains, but the most powerful of them is iron. Because iron cuts mountains, and more intense than iron is fire. Because fire melts iron, and water is more powerful than fire. Because water puts out fire, and more powerful than water is wind. Because the wind removes the water, and the one who is stronger than the wind is the son of Adam; Because he can hide from the wind, and worse than a person is drunkenness, which is the absence of the mind, and what is more severe than it is the worry that does not let the person sleep.”

So distress and worry are the strongest soldiers of Allah (swt) over man, so there are people who die from distress.

فَأَثَابَكُمْ غُمَّاً بِغَمٍّ{So Allah repaid you with distress upon distress}: This grief was like an atonement for what they had done, and this grief was severe for them, it is the grief that they had violated the command of the Prophet (saws).

لِّكَيْلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلاَ مَا أَصَابَكُمْ{so you would not grieve for that which had escaped you [of victory and spoils of war] or [for] that which had befallen you [of injury and death]}: The man lives in a world of changes, and is subject to all kinds of trials; such as the loss of his loved ones, or is afflicted with disease, or suffers from poverty and so on. He always thinks that Allah (swt) has made his predestination with his kindness.

الآية رقم (152) - وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّونَهُم بِإِذْنِهِ حَتَّى إِذَا فَشِلْتُمْ وَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ وَعَصَيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا أَرَاكُم مَّا تُحِبُّونَ مِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الدُّنْيَا وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الآخِرَةَ ثُمَّ صَرَفَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ لِيَبْتَلِيَكُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا عَنكُمْ وَاللّهُ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(152) - {And Allah had certainly fulfilled His promise to you when you were killing the enemy by His permission until [the time] when you lost courage and fell to disputing about the order [given by the Prophet] and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you love. Among you are some who desire this world, and among you are some who desire the Hereafter. Then he turned you back from them [defeated] that He might test you. And He has already forgiven you, and Allah is the possessor of bounty for the believers.}

After Allah (swt) mentioned that He would cast terror into the hearts of the infidels, He now begins to talk about the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them), who lived this incident:

وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّونَهُم بِإِذْنِه {And Allah had certainly fulfilled His promise to you when you were killing the enemy by His permission}: There was a victory at the beginning of the battle because as we know that the archers left their positions to take the spoils and considered that the war had ended, so at the beginning of Allah (swt) fulfilled His promise and gave them victory because Allah (swt) says: {when you were killing the enemy}.

حَتَّى إِذَا فَشِلْتُمْ وَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ وَعَصَيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا أَرَاكُم مَّا تُحِبُّونَ {until [the time] when you lost courage and fell to disputing about the order [given by the Prophet] and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you love}: After you have seen the victory.

مِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الدُّنْيَا{Among you are some who desire this world}: Those who disobeyed the commands of the Prophet (saws), and went to the booty.

وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الآخِرَةَ{and among you are some who desire the Hereafter.}: So there was a promise of victory, and they were victorious, but when they violated the Prophet (saws), they were defeated. Abdullah bin Masoud (May Allah be pleased with him) said: If I swore on that day, I would hope that my oath was true that none of us wanted the world, until then Allah sent down: {Among you are some who desire this world, and among you are some who desire the Hereafter.}.

وَلَقَدْ عَفَا عَنكُمْ {And He has already forgiven you,}: Look at the kindness and the mercy of Allah (swt), these are the believers who have weakened and committed disobedience, but they did not abandon the divine commands, so Allah (swt) pardoned them.

الآية رقم (151) - سَنُلْقِي فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الرُّعْبَ بِمَا أَشْرَكُواْ بِاللّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ وَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الظَّالِمِينَ

(151) - {We will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve for what they have associated with Allah of which He had not sent down [any] authority. And their refuge will be the Fire, and wretched is the residence of the wrongdoers.}

The Arabic word which is used for (cast) is used for a material thing and not for a non-material as the terror.  But Allah (swt), used this word to rest the Companions of the Prophet (saws) after the losses that occurred in the Battle of Uhud, as if to say to them: I will gather terror from all directions and cast it into the hearts of the polytheists.

بِمَا أَشْرَكُواْ بِاللّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا {for what they have associated with Allah of which He had not sent down [any] authority.}: The authority is either the authority of power, or the authority of argument, evidence, and proof, so they do not have authority which is the evidence, to prove their association with Allah (swt), and they will remain in fear until Allah (swt) inherits the earth. Associating partners with Allah (swt) means to believe there are those who harm, benefit, give, prevent, connect, cut, lower, lift, dignify, humiliate, give life and death other than Allah (swt).

{وَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الظَّالِمِينَ} {and wretched is the residence of the wrongdoers.}:

They are the wrongdoers because they are severely unjust to themselves, that is because they present themselves a quick, temporary favour, as such when a person despises, lies, bribes, and does evil, then he is giving himself a quick favour that ends while he remains in the deprivation of disobedience until he reaches the Fire, so he is unjust to himself and to others at the same time.